Antitumour Potential of Seamoss Gigartina pistillata Carrageenans against Colorectal Cancer Stem Cell-Enriched Tumourspheres


Gigartina pistillata is a red seaweed common in North Africa and south Europe.

Here, the antitumour potential of G. pistillata carrageenan, with a known variable of the life cycle, the female gametophyte (FG) and tetrasporophyte (T) was evaluated against colorectal cancer stem cell (CSC) -enriched tumourspheres.

FTIR-ATR analysis of G. pistillata carrageenan extracts indicated differences between life cycle phases, being FG a κ/ι hybrid carrageenan and T a ʎ/ξ hybrid.

Both carrageenan extracts presented IC50 values inferior to 1 μg/mL in HT29-derived CSC-enriched tumourspheres, as well as reduced tumoursphere area.

The two extracts were also effective at reducing cellular viability in SW620- and SW480-derived tumourspheres. These results indicate that carrageenans extracted from two G. pistillata life cycle phases have antitumour potential against colorectal cancer stem-like cells, specially the T carrageenan.

Diverse types of carrageenan are acquired from different species of the Gigartinales (Rhodophyta).

Kappa (κ)-carrageenan is mostly acquired by extraction from the tropical seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii (identified as “cottonii”, in the seaweed commercial area related to the food industry), while iota (ι)-carrageenan is mainly extracted from Eucheuma denticulatum (commercial denomination “spinosum”).

In turn, lambda (ʎ)-carrageenan is acquired from various species from the genera Gigartina and Chondrus (commercial denomination “Irish moss”).

This unique hydrocolloid consists of alternating galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose sugars linked by alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 glycosidic linkages [5,6].

Carrageenans can be classified as ʎ, κ, and ι according to the number of sulphated groups by galactose unit (Figure 1), where number, chemical location, and arrangement of these groups defines carrageenan function and bioactivity power [2,7].

Health-promoting effects in the gut and influence on lipid metabolism of Himanthalia elongata and Gigartina pistillata in hypercholesterolaemic Wistar rats


The intake of Himanthalia elongata and Gigartina pistillata from the Spanish Atlantic coasts was evaluated in Wistar rats. Both seaweed diets showed higher (p < 0.001) faecal excretion.

Colonic fermentation increased (p < 0.001) total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in Himanthalia-fed rats due to the higher (p < 0.001) levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids.

The intake of Gigartina increased (p < 0.001) propionic acid and decreased (p < 0.001) butyric acid.

The apparent absorption and true retention of calcium and magnesium enhanced (p < 0.05) with Himanthalia diet, while Gigartina produced no significant effect.

The serum concentration of HDL-C increased (p < 0.01), triglycerides (TGL) decreased (p < 0.001) and bile acids diminished (p < 0.001) in faeces of Himanthalia-fed rats.

The Gigartina diet produced a decrease (p < 0.001) in TGL, total cholesterol (p < 0.01) and LDL-C (p < 0.05) in serum and reduced TGL in liver (p < 0.001).

Thus, both seaweeds improved the lipid profile, and Himanthalia increased SCFA production and the absorption and retention of Ca and Mg as a result of the gut fermentation.

SeaMoss Frequently Asked Questions

SeaMoss Frequently Asked Questions

How long my gel will last in the fridge? Can I also freeze it?

You can freeze it for up to six months, It lasts about 3 weeks in the fridge.

Can I use seamoss water & how?

Yes, you can use seamoss water, it’s good for the skin & hair And soaks your feet.

Can I take Sea Moss while on Iodine medication? (Common Thyroid issues)

It is not recommended that you take Sea Moss while taking Iodine medication. PLEASE CONSULT A PHYSICIAN in this case. Normally what we find is that Sea moss replaces the daily need for Iodine medication. Again, please consult your doctor & feel free to reach out to us directly for further discussion. 

How do I know if my Sea Moss spoiled?

Signs of spoilage include odd pungent aroma & light grayish watery/slimy coating on top layer & mold.  If you find mold or suspect spoilage please reach out immediately. 

How much Sea Moss can I consume?

As much as you would like. We recommend at least 2 tablespoons per day. The more the better but remember to drink at least 1 gallon of water per day.  
Please Note: Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider/nutritionist

Can I take Sea Moss if I am allergic to shellfish, sea animals, or bottom feeders?

Absolutely! Sea Moss is a Vegan product that simply grows off the shores in the Sea. 

Where does Bwinto seamoss come from?

Our Sea Moss grows in the Atlantic ocean of Moroccan coast, We harvest our Irish Sea Moss by ourselves and dried and pack it with care.

I am currently on a blood thinner, may I consume the gel?

Irish Moss functions as a natural thinner. You should abstain from using.

Is it safe for children?

 Sea Moss loves the kids! Yes. It's safe for children to consume. However, If you have any concerns, please consult your medical advisor before consumption!

Does sea moss help hair?

YES absolutely, hair will be shinier.

Does sea moss tighten skin?

seaweed not only helps reduce pore filling and tightens pores, but also promotes cell regeneration, thereby helping to maintain a youthful appearance. Impressively, it is known to help reduce the appearance of acne scars, spots, and pigmentation.

What is Sea Moss?

Sea Moss, also known as Irish moss, is a form of seaweed, a specific type of red algae or Chondrus Crispusoffers us a variety of health benefits. "
Irish Moss" is actually not a “moss,” but is a part of the seaweed family. It is a “red seaweed” and it comes from Ireland, hence its name, and is mostly used in soups as a thickening agent to aid the sick and malnourished

How can I use my Sea Moss Gel?

You can use your Sea Moss Gel both internally and externally. Internally, it can be added to smoothies, shakes, teas, juices, and even made as a tea itself. It is also commonly used while cooking soups, as an oil substitute (to saute vegetables), and as a thickener in baked goods. 

Externally, Sea Moss Gel can be used on the face as a mask or on the entire body. Apply the Sea Moss to your skin and leave on for about 20-30 minutes and rinse off. The more you use it, you will naturally discover more ways to enjoy it while receiving optimal cell-food. Externally, Sea Moss is excellent and very beneficial for skin issues including psoriasis, eczema and other skin-related issues.

What are the benefits of using Sea Moss?

While the list of benefits for Sea Moss exceeds most because they are vast and unlimited, we recommend consuming it for its high mineral content to aid in maintaining a proper mineral balance in the body. Click here to view more information on Sea Moss and its amazing benefits.

Can too much sea moss be harmful?

Too much of anything can be harmful as sea moss as a high count in Iodine is 0.80mg per 100g and the recommended intake is 0.15g.

How long does raw sea moss last before spoiling? 

Raw Sea moss can last up to 5 years providing it is sealed in a plastic of glass container and stored out of the direct sunlight and away from moist dark areas.

What can I use my gel for?

Sea moss gel can be used as a food supplement by adding 1-2 tsps to things such as:-
Smoothies bowls
soups, curries etc 
can be used a vegan gelatine replacement
As well as being a food supplement, sea moss has many external benefits for the skin, nails and hair as it can be used as a key ingredient in things such as :
Skin lotions
Shower gels
hair conditioners
 can be used as a natural face mask in its gel form 

7 Surprising Health Benefits of Eating Seaweed

Seaweed or sea vegetables are forms of algae that grow in the sea.

They’re a food source for ocean life and range in color from red to green to brown to black.

Seaweed grows along rocky shorelines around the world, but it’s most commonly eaten in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, and China.

It’s extremely versatile and can be used in many dishes, including sushi rolls, soups, and stews, salads, supplements, and smoothies.

What’s more, seaweed is highly nutritious, so a little goes a long way.

Here are 7 science-backed benefits of seaweed.

1. Contains Iodine and Tyrosine, Which Support Thyroid Function

Your thyroid gland releases hormones to help control growth, energy production, reproduction, and the repair of damaged cells in your body.

Your thyroid relies on iodine to make hormones. Without enough iodine, you may start to experience symptoms like weight changes, fatigue, or swelling of the neck over time.

The recommended dietary intake (RDI) for iodine is 150 mcg per day.

Seaweed has the unique ability to absorb concentrated amounts of iodine from the ocean.

Its iodine content varies greatly depending on the type, where it was grown, and how it was processed. In fact, one dried sheet of seaweed can contain 11–1,989% of the RDI.

Below is the average iodine content of three different dried seaweeds:

  • Nori: 37 mcg per gram (25% of the RDI)
  • Wakame: 139 mcg per gram (93% of the RDI)
  • Kombu: 2523 mcg per gram (1,682% of the RDI)

Kelp is one of the best sources of iodine. Just one teaspoon (3.5 grams) of dried kelp could contain 59 times the RDI.

Seaweed also contains an amino acid called tyrosine, which is used alongside iodine to make two key hormones that help the thyroid gland do its job properly.

2. Good Source of Vitamins and Minerals

Each type of seaweed has a unique set of nutrients.

Sprinkling some dried seaweed on your food not only adds taste, texture, and flavor to your meal, but it’s an easy way to boost your intake of vitamins and minerals.

Generally, 1 tablespoon (7 grams) of dried spirulina can provide :

  • Calories: 20
  • Carbs: 1.7 grams
  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Fat: 0.5 gram
  • Fiber: 0.3 grams
  • Riboflavin: 15% of the RDI
  • Thiamin: 11% of the RDI
  • Iron: 11% of the RDI
  • Manganese: 7% of the RDI
  • Copper: 21% of the RDI

Seaweed also contains small amounts of vitamins A, C, E, and K, along with folate, zinc, sodium, calcium, and magnesium.

While it may only contribute to a small percentage of some of the RDIs above, using it as a seasoning once or twice per week can be an easy way to add more nutrients to your diet.

The proteins present in some seaweeds, such as spirulina and chlorella, contain all of the essential amino acids. This means seaweed can help ensure you get the full range of amino acids.

Seaweed can also be a good source of omega-3 fats and vitamin B12.

In fact, it appears that dried green and purple seaweed contain substantial amounts of vitamin B12. One study found 2.4 mcg or 100% of the RDI of vitamin B12 in only 4 grams of nori seaweed.

That said, there is an ongoing debate about whether your body can absorb and use the vitamin B12 from seaweed.

3. Contains a Variety of Protective Antioxidants

Antioxidants can make unstable substances in your body called free radicals less reactive.

This makes them less likely to damage your cells.

Furthermore, excess free radical production is considered to be an underlying cause of several diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes.

In addition to containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E, seaweed boasts a wide variety of beneficial plant compounds, including flavonoids and carotenoids. These have been shown to protect your body’s cells from free radical damage.

A lot of research has focused on one particular carotenoid called fucoxanthin.

It’s the main carotenoid found in brown algae, such as wakame, and it has 13.5 times the antioxidant capacity as vitamin E.

Fucoxanthin has been shown to protect cell membranes better than vitamin A.

While the body does not always absorb fucoxanthin well, absorption may be improved by consuming it along with fat.

Nevertheless, seaweed contains a wide variety of plant compounds that work together to have strong antioxidant effects.

4. Provides Fiber and Polysaccharides That Can Support Your Gut Health

Gut bacteria play an enormous role in your health.

It’s estimated that you have more bacteria cells in your body than human cells.

An imbalance in these “good” and “bad” gut bacteria can lead to sickness and disease.

Seaweed is an excellent source of fiber, which is known to promote gut health.

It can make up about 25–75% of seaweed’s dry weight. This is higher than the fiber content of most fruits and vegetables).

Fiber can resist digestion and be used as a food source for bacteria in your large intestine instead.

Additionally, particular sugars found in seaweed called sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to increase the growth of “good” gut bacteria.

These polysaccharides can also increase the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which provide support and nourishment to the cells lining your gut.

5. May Help You Lose Weight by Delaying Hunger and Reducing Weight

Seaweed contains a lot of fiber, which does not contain any calories.

The fiber in seaweed may slow stomach emptying, too. This helps you feel fuller for longer and can delay hunger pangs.

Seaweed is also considered to have anti-obesity effects. In particular, several animal studies suggest that a substance in seaweed called fucoxanthin may help reduce body fat.

One animal study found that rats who consumed fucoxanthin lost weight, whereas rats who consumed the control diet did not.

The results showed that fucoxanthin increased the expression of a protein that metabolizes the fat in rats.

Other animal studies found similar results. For example, fucoxanthin has been shown to significantly reduce blood sugar levels in rats, further aiding weight loss.

Although the results in animal studies appear very promising, it’s important that human studies are conducted to verify these findings.

6. May Reduce Heart Disease Risk

Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide.

Factors that increase your risk include high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, and being physically inactive or overweight.

Interestingly, seaweed may help reduce your blood cholesterol levels.

One eight-week study fed rats with high cholesterol a high-fat diet supplemented with 10% freeze-dried seaweed. It found the rats had 40% lower total cholesterol, 36% lower LDL cholesterol, and 31% lower triglyceride levels.

Heart disease can also be caused by excessive blood clotting. Seaweed contains carbohydrates called fucans, which may help prevent blood from clotting.

In fact, one animal study found that fucans extracted from seaweed prevented blood clotting as effectively as an anti-clotting drug.

Researchers are also starting to look at peptides in seaweed. Initial studies in animals indicate that these protein-like structures may block part of a pathway that increases blood pressure in your body.

However, large-scale human studies are required to confirm these results.

7. May Help Reduce Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes by Improving Blood Sugar Control

Diabetes is a major health problem.

It occurs when your body is unable to balance your blood sugar levels over time.

By the year 2040, 642 million people worldwide are expected to have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Interestingly, seaweed has become a research focus for new ways to support people who are at risk of diabetes.

An eight-week study in 60 Japanese people revealed that fucoxanthin, a substance in brown seaweed, may help improve blood sugar control.

Participants received a local seaweed oil that contained either 0 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg of fucoxanthin. The study found that those who received 2 mg of fucoxanthin had improved blood sugar levels, compared to the group who received 0 mg.

The study also noted additional improvements in blood sugar levels in those with a genetic disposition to insulin resistance, which usually accompanies type 2 diabetes.

What’s more, another substance in seaweed called alginate prevented blood sugar spikes in animals after they were fed a high-sugar meal. It’s thought that alginate may reduce the absorption of sugar into the bloodstream.

Several other animal studies have reported improved blood sugar control when seaweed extracts are added to the diet.

Possible Dangers of Seaweed

Although seaweed is considered a very healthy food, there may be some potential dangers of consuming too much.

Excess Iodine

Seaweed can contain a very large and potentially dangerous amount of iodine.

Interestingly, Japanese people’s high iodine intake is considered to be one reason why they are among the healthiest people in the world.

However, the daily average intake of iodine in Japan is estimated to be 1,000–3,000 mcg (667–2,000% of the RDI). This poses a risk to those who consume seaweed every day, as 1,100 mcg of iodine is the tolerable upper limit (TUL) for adults.

Fortunately, in Asian cultures seaweed is commonly eaten with foods that can inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland. These foods are known as goitrogens and are found in foods like broccoli, cabbage, and bok choy.

Additionally, it’s important to note that seaweed is water-soluble, which means cooking and processing it can affect its iodine content. For example, when kelp is boiled for 15 minutes, it can lose up to 90% of its iodine content.

While a few case reports have associated iodine-containing kelp consumption and thyroid dysfunction, thyroid function returned to normal once consumption stopped.

Nevertheless, high amounts of seaweed can affect thyroid function, and symptoms of too much iodine are often the same as symptoms of not enough iodine.

If you think you are consuming too much iodine and experience symptoms like swelling around your neck region or weight fluctuations, reduce your intake of iodine-rich foods and talk to your doctor.

Heavy Metal Load

Seaweed can absorb and store minerals in concentrated amounts.

This poses a health risk, as seaweed can also contain large amounts of toxic heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, and lead.

That said, the heavy metal content in seaweed is usually below the maximum concentration allowances in most countries.

A recent study analyzed the concentration of 20 metals in 8 different seaweeds from Asia and Europe. It found that the levels of cadmium, aluminum, and lead in 4 grams of each seaweed did not pose any serious health risks.

Nonetheless, if you consume seaweed regularly, there is the potential for heavy metals to accumulate in your body over time.

If possible, buy organic seaweed, as it’s less likely to contain significant amounts of heavy metals.

The Bottom Line

Seaweed is an increasingly popular ingredient in cuisines all over the world.

It’s the best dietary source of iodine, which helps support your thyroid gland.

It also contains other vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin K, B vitamins, zinc, and iron, along with antioxidants that help protect your cells from damage.

However, too much iodine from seaweed could harm your thyroid function.

For optimum health benefits, enjoy this ancient ingredient in regular but small amounts.

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